Ale Houses, Pubs and Taverns
A look at their development and place in the community - An article by Christine Forbes nee Lloyd


Renowned the world over, the great British pub is not just a place to drink beer, wine, cider or even something a little bit stronger - it is a unique social centre, very often the focus of community life in villages, towns and cities throughout the length and breadth of the country. However, this is changing with the closure of many pubs in recent years.
It appears that the great British pub actually started life as a great Italian wine bar, and dates back almost 2,000 years. It was an invading Roman army that first brought Roman roads, Roman towns and Roman pubs known as tabernae to these shores in 43 AD. Such tabernae, or shops that sold wine, were quickly built alongside Roman roads and in towns to help quench the thirst of the legionary troops.
Ale however was the native British brew, and it appears that these tabernae quickly adapted to provide the locals with their favourite tipple, and the word eventually became corrupted to tavern. The native British brew of ‘ale’ was originally made without hops. Ale brewed with hops was gradually introduced in the 14th and 15th centuries; this was known as beer. By 1550 most brewing included hops and “alehouse” and “beerhouse” became synonymous. Today beer is the general term with bitter, mild, ales, stouts and lagers simply denoting different types of beer.
These taverns or alehouses not only survived but continued to adapt to an ever changing clientele, through invading Angles, Saxons, Jutes and both Danish and Scandinavian Vikings. Around 970 AD one Anglo-Saxon king, Edgar, even attempted to limit the number of alehouses in any one village. He is also said to have been responsible for introducing a drinking measure known as ‘the peg’ as a means of controlling the amount of alcohol an individual could consume, hence the expression “to take (someone) down a peg”.
Taverns and alehouses provided food and drink to their guests, whilst inns offered accommodation for weary travellers. These could include merchants, court officials or pilgrims travelling to and from religious shrines, as immortalised by Geoffrey Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales.
Inns also served military purposes; one of the oldest dating from 1189 AD is Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem in Nottingham, and is said to have acted as a recruitment centre for volunteers to accompany King Richard I (The Lionheart) on his crusade to the Holy Lands.
Alehouses, inns and taverns collectively became known as public houses and then simply as pubs around the reign of King Henry VII. A little later, in 1552, an Act was passed that required innkeepers to have a licence in order to run a pub.
Throughout history, ale and beer have formed a part of the staple British diet, the brewing process itself making it a much safer option than drinking water. Although both coffee and tea were introduced into Britain around the mid-1600s, their prohibitive prices ensured that they remained the preserve of the rich and famous. Just a few decades later however, things changed dramatically when cheap spirits, such as brandy from France and gin from Holland, hit the shelves of the pubs. The social problems caused by the ‘Gin Era’ of 1720 – 1750 are recorded in Hogarth’s Gin Lane. The Gin Acts of 1736 and 1751 reduced gin consumption to a quarter of its previous level and returned some semblance of order back to the pubs.
The age of the stagecoach heralded yet another new era for the pubs of the time, as coaching inns were established on strategic routes throughout the country. Such inns provided food, drink and accommodation for passengers and crew alike, as well as changes of fresh horses for their continued journey. The passengers themselves generally consisted of two distinct groups: the more affluent who could afford the relative luxury of travelling inside the coach, and the others who would travel outside. The ‘insiders’ would of course receive the warmest greetings and be welcomed into the innkeepers private parlour or salon (saloon); the outsiders meanwhile would get no further than the inn’s bar room.
The age of the stagecoach, although relatively short-lived, did establish the precedence for the class distinctions that followed with rail travel from the 1840s onward. Like the railways that operated a First, Second and even Third Class service, so the pubs evolved in a similar manner. Pubs of that time, even relatively small ones, would typically be split into several rooms and bars in order to cater for differing preferences of the differing type and class of customer.
By 1577 it is estimated that there were some 17,000 alehouses, 2,000 inns and 400 taverns throughout England and Wales. Taking into account the population of the period, that would equate to around one pub for every 200 persons. The number of public houses per capita most likely peaked in the late 19th century and has been falling ever since, although the industry saw a temporary recovery after the Second World War. By 1969, there were 75,000 pubs in the UK, a number that fell gradually to 69,000 by 1980, finally slipping below the 60,000 mark for the first time in 2003 and the decline in numbers continues.
This pattern can be followed in Glasbury, which was well provided with at least 8 pubs in the village during the 19th century. Of these, the only one still functioning as a pub is the Harp Inn – the rest have disappeared or become private dwellings, apart from the Maesllwch Arms Hotel which has metamorphosed into Foyles Glasbury.

The Pubs of Glasbury - on the Radnorshire side

The Maesllwch Arms : -- ( now re-named Foyles Glasbury ).

The original building dates from the 18th century and has been considerably altered over the years, even before the most recent changes which were completed in 2015.
Until the 1950s the bar was in the central section of the building – in fact where it is now following the latest renovation. Early photographs show large barn doors, later replaced by windows, which must have opened on to the bar. The public bar was moved to the south side of the building and the original bar area made into a dining room which was lined with oak panelling taken from Maesllwch Castle. The panelling extended into what became the lounge bar which had a large, ornate fireplace (still in situ), also taken from the Castle. An upstairs assembly room was used for functions and dances – a concert was held here to celebrate the Queen’s coronation in 1953 – but was converted into bedrooms soon afterwards.
In 1841, according to the census return, the landlord was Henry Joliffe (born on the Isle of Wight) who is listed with his wife and 1 house servant. In 1841 Mr Joliffe provided a dinner for the Maesllwch Estate tenants at a charge of £29.5s.0d which included dinner for 62 tenants, a bottle of brandy, a bottle of gin, 2 bottles of sherry wine, 36 bowls of punch, 60 glasses of spirits and water, beer, tobacco and entertainment. A good time had by all!
In the 1851 to 1881 census returns, Richard James is the landlord; he was born in Northamptonshire. In 1851 he is listed as Innkeeper, along with his wife (born in St. David’s Pembrokeshire) and 2 house servants, both born locally. In 1871 he is listed as Innkeeper and Farmer and in 1881 he is listed as Innkeeper and Farmer of 10 acres. It seemed that all the innkeepers had a second occupation.
In 1931 The Maesllwch Arms had “accommodation for 15 persons for one night or longer, a garage with room for 2 cars and stabling for 2 horses”.
The Arms, as it was known in the village, belonged to the Maesllwch Estate until around 1960 when it was sold to H.P. Bulmer Ltd. who put in a series of managers. This was a period of success for the hotel. It was very popular in the 1950’s and 1960’s, particularly with fishermen, who came to Glasbury to take advantage of the Wye and its plentiful salmon.
Bulmers sold the Maesllwch Arms in the 1970s and between then and the present day it has had a chequered history - at one time boarded up after the owners were bankrupted and local gossip talked of conversion to an old people’s home. Fortunately, it was resurrected and became once more very popular, particularly for Sunday lunch, when run by Rob and Carol Taylor and then Ian and Carol Birch, who eventually sold to a large pub chain ( Enterprise Inns ) in 2005. Once again a series of managers were in charge and this was the beginning of a gradual decline which ended with its sale at auction.
After a major renovation by the new owners, the Maesllwch Arms is now a hotel and restaurant, renamed Foyles Glasbury and opening on July 1st 2015.

It is now the only licensed premises on the Radnor side of the village.

The Lamb Inn: --

Now a private dwelling, this building also dates from the 18th century. In 1815 David Jones appeared as the landlord in a list of pubs which entered into recognisances to “keep and maintain good order and not suffer any disorder or unlawful games to be used”. He was still landlord in 1825 when he paid £30 for his alehouse licence, but in 1826 and 1827 the licence was paid by William Michael and in 1828 by John Burgwyn.
The 1841 census return names the landlord as Thomas Jones, a butcher as well as innkeeper. In 1851 the landlord is listed as Edward Evans who was born locally, in Aberllynfi, living with his wife, 2 sons and 1 house servant. In 1861 he is still there with his wife, 1 son, 2 house servants and a boarder: Thomas Jones, aged 90, a former schoolmaster who was in charge of Coed-y-Bolen school between 1816 and 1837.
By 1871 the landlord has changed and is now Benjamin Williams who was formerly The landlord of the Swan Inn. The Lamb remained with the Williams family until 1911, the last year for which census records are available.
The Lamb was the headquarters, according to an article in the Brecon & Radnor Express dated June 1911 of “Court Lily of the Forest (no. 6028 Herefordshire district)” of the Ancient Order of Foresters which is a benevolent Society dating back to the 15th century. Court Lily of the Forest organised athletic sports meetings in the village in the early years of the 20th century.
At the start of the 20th century the Lamb was owned by the Hereford & Tredegar Brewery. The licensee from 1921 was Robert Fernie, whose wife was, at that time and until the early 1950s, the licensee of the Maesllwch Arms. In 1931, at a hearing of the County Licensing Committee, the Lamb was described as consisting of a tap room, bar, kitchen, scullery, pantry, store room and cellar (all the walls of which were said to be damp), together with 3 bedrooms, sitting room and club room. Outside was a barn, a three-stall stable, pigsty, 2 bucket closets in the garden and a concrete urinal. Mr Fernie told the committee that “trade was very little, did not average a barrel a week” and that “profits were not sufficient to keep him”. The company said that it had spent £465 on renewals and repairs and had built a new kitchen. Trade in 1928 was 91 barrels of beer (drawn by hand from the barrel) and 55 gallons of wines/spirits; in 1930 it was 53 barrels of beer and 38 gallons of wines/spirits. Renewal of the licence was refused and the Lamb closed.

The Swan Inn : --

The site, on the village green, is now occupied by a private dwelling. The Swan Inn, originally 2 old thatched cottages, is not mentioned in the licensing records up to 1829 but in the 1841 census it is listed as a public house with Benjamin Williams, born in Llandefalle, as the landlord. He was also a master blacksmith, employing 3 men and in the 1861 census return he is listed with his wife, 3 children, an apprentice blacksmith and Benjamin, his 80 year-old father who was a former innkeeper.
In 1871 Benjamin moved to the Lamb Inn and the new landlord was Thomas Jones. It would appear that soon afterwards the Swan ceased trading as a public house since in the 1881 census it is listed as Swan Cottage, with a carpenter called John smith and his family living there.
In 1922 the old thatched building was demolished and replaced by a wooden bungalow which was again replaced in 2006 by the present house.

The Plough and Harrow : --

Now a private dwelling. Built in the 18th century and a pub in 1789, the Plough and Harrow belonged to the Maesllwch Estate. In 1827 and 1828 the licence was granted to Thomas Kitchenman who was also a glazier and who died in 1834 aged 41. He has a fine memorial stone in St Peter’s churchyard.
The Plough and Harrow stood on what used to be the road from the village up to Ffynnongynnydd. This road became a private drive to Maesllwch Castle when the Estate built, circa 1840, a new road connecting the village and Ffynnongynnydd,. Presumably, this was the time when the Plough and Harrow ceased trading and became Harrow Lodge or Harrow Cottage, since, according to the 1841 census, James Watkins, a carpenter, lived there with his wife and family and 1 servant. At some point an addition was made to the side of the property nearest the village and this became the Estate office. During the Second World War the house was used as a base by the local Home Guard.

The Pubs of Glasbury on the Breconshire side

The Harp Inn : --

The Harp Inn is a traditional country Inn which dates from around 1720. The building’s use as a public house is recorded in auction sale details dated 1796 and it may have started life as a cider house. Situated on the road to Hay, and not far from the crossing point over the Wye, it would have benefited greatly from passing trade.
In 1841 and 1851 the innkeeper was William Davies, born in Glasbury, who was also a musician. He was followed in 1861 by William Williams, in 1871 by John Davies, in 1881 by James Davies, in 1891 by Annie Lewis, in 1901 by Williams Davies and, prior to 1911, by William Curtis Morgan.
One evening in July 1866 an injured man called John Williams was taken to the Harp Inn after being struck in the chest by a piece of timber near Glasbury railway station. Mr Williams, of Hay-on-Wye, worked for a timber merchant and was unloading a timber carriage when the accident happened. A Talgarth surgeon who was in the neighbourhood rushed to the Harp Inn to help, but Mr Williams died.
Inquests were sometimes held at the Harp Inn. In 1913 the jury returned a verdict of accidental drowning on five-year-old Oscar Morgan, second son of Mr and Mrs Jenkin Morgan of Glasbury. The child had been “playing ships” with another boy at a pool on the Grove when he over-reached and fell into the water. He was buried at St Peter’s Churchyard.
Licensing records from 1909 show that the pub’s registered owners were Arnold Perrett and Company, of Wickwar, Gloucester, with William Curtis Morgan the licensee. In 1919 he was fined £2 10s for selling spirits in the bar without displaying the maximum price, and the same amount again for selling spirits for more than the “maximum controlled price”.
Prior to major changes carried out in the 1960s, there was a dark, low ceilinged public bar to the left of the building where the dart board is now, a top bar which was rarely used apart from when the local youths persuaded Bill Price, the landlord, to allow them to play cards there and an off-licence window which was situated to the right of the current front door. A rear garden with pig sties to one side is now a large car park.
Brian and Jean Potter enlarged and modernised the building during their ownership, ably followed by Dave and Linda White, making the Harp more or less the pub we know today. Happily for the village, the Harp is still very much a going concern and central to village gatherings in the very capable hands of Grahame and Jayne Day

The Six Bells :--

This was situated to the east of St Peter’s church, just below the tram line , in a field for which planning permission is currently being sought (2017) to build several houses. It disappeared many years ago although its outline is still currently visible in the field. In 1815 it was included in a Licensing Authority list, and, like the Lamb Inn, agreed to “keep and maintain good order, and … not suffer any disorder or unlawful games to be played”. At that time, and until 1827, John White was the licensee.
In 1841 the licensee was William Honeyfield, born in Gillingham in Dorset, and also described as a wool sorter - yet another example of innkeepers having a second occupation. The woollen mill at Treble Hill provided work for many in the village until its closure in about 1860.
William is listed as landlord between 1851and 1871. In 1841 and 1851 his occupation is given as woolsorter/innkeeper whereas in 1861 he is now, as well as an innkeeper, a wool stapler employing 3 men. He died in 1877; his widow continued to live in the village until her death in 1892.
The Six Bells does not appear on the census returns after 1871; presumably it closed with the death of William in 1877.

The Maesllwch in the 1890's, showing the double doors
Photo from the Battiscoombe collection

The Maesllwch Lounge and ornate fireplace 1950's
Courtesy of Christine Forbes ( nee Lloyd )

Foyles Glasbury -shortly after it's opening
B Bowker - 02.07.2015

Lamb House, formally The Lamb Inn
B Bowker - 02.07.2015

"July 19th 1928- Mr R. Fernie of the Lamb Inn lectured this afternoon to classes 1 and 2 on his voyage to and life in the Falkland Islands."
( From Ffynnon-Gynydd School log book )

A watercolour of Glasbury in the 1970's, depicting
Lamb House on the left, Maesllwch Arms on the right
and centre stage is the old Blacksmiths shop
Courtesy of Elizabeth Fry

The Swan Inn circa 1880, on the left, in a watercolour
by Ursula Cooper from an original by T R Philips

Harrow Lodge, formally the Plough and Harrow
Photo courtesy of Chris Forbes, nee Lloyd

The Harp Inn in the early1900's
Courtesy of Paul Greenow

A rare photograph of the Six Bells in 1878
Courtesy of Brigid Edlin ( nee Cooper )

The Castle Inn : --

This pub was situated on the B4350 road to Hay, somewhere between Broomfield and the Harp. In 1841 and 1851 the landlord was Edward Gwynne who was also a master saddler. He lived there with his wife and 4 children, a saddler apprentice, a house servant and, in 1851, 2 timber surveyors and a horse dealer. Presumably the latter 3 were paying guests.
In 1861 Edward Gwynne, still listed as a saddler, was living at Grove House with his family and in 1871 he was living in Chapel House but no mention is made of the Castle Inn in census returns after 1851. Could the Inn have become a private dwelling? Could it have been damaged by, for example, fire? No more is known about this pub. Edward Gwynne died in 1879.

Others : --

Also mentioned in the alehouse licences granted in Glasbury were the Hammer and Trowel and the Mason’s Arms. In 1823 and 1824 the licensee of the Hammer and Trowel was Ann Berry. In 1825 the licencee is listed as Thomas Kitchenman for Ann Berry. Ann Berry died on 21st May 1825, which is probably why Thomas Kitchenman was standing in for her. He was granted the licence for the Hammer and Trowel in 1826, but in 1827 he is listed as the licencee for the Plough and Harrow. The Hammer and Trowel disappears in the licensing records after 1826 but the Masons Arms appears, licensee James Harris. Could it be the same pub but with a change of name?

In the 1950s Glasbury House was a Country Club, opening on Sundays. In this way the locals who were members no longer had to cross the border into England for their Sunday drink. Pubs were closed in Wales on Sundays from 1880, following pressure from the temperance movement and non-conformist chapels, until a change in the licensing laws in 1961 allowed each county to vote on the question of Sunday opening.

Further information on Glasbury pub landlords and families, obtained from Census Returns and parish registers.

The Castle Inn : --

Edward Gwynne, the landlord in 1841 and 1851 was born in Glasbury and was a master saddler. He married Jennet Jenkins on 6th April, 1832 by special licence. They had 4 children: Henrietta born in 1832 (baptised 15th July); Caroline born circa 1834; William born circa 1838 and Anne born circa 1842.
Jennet died sometime prior to 1871 as in this census Edward is listed as a widower and is living in Chapel House with his daughters Henrietta Kitchingman, a milliner, and Anne Jones, together with his granddaughters, Ada Gwynne Kitchingman, aged 5, born in London and Caroline Jennet Jones, aged 2, born in Birmingham and his grandson George Edward Jones, aged 2 months born in Birmingham.
In 1841 Edward had an 18 year old apprentice living with him at the Castle Inn – Thomas Kitchingman. Thomas was baptised in St. Peter’s Church on 30th September, 1822, and was the son of Thomas and Mary Kitchingman, sometime licensees of the Plough and Harrow. I presume that he was the husband of Henrietta.
Edward Gwynne died in 1879.

The Harp Inn : --

The landlord in 1841 and 1851 was William Davies who was born in Glasbury and was also a musician. He is listed as living with his wife, Anne, born in Llandeilo and his children, Mary Anne, born circa 1837, son John born circa 1842 and Elizabeth born circa 1846 – all children were born in Glasbury. In 1861 he has left the Harp and is living at no. 1 Grove Cottage, and his occupation is given as basket maker and musician.
1n 1861 the landlord was William Williams, who was also a shoemaker, born in Aberedw, living with his wife Elizabeth, born in Bredwardine and children William, born circa 1854 in Hay, daughter Mary Anne,born circa 1856 in Boughrood and son John, aged 1 month, born in Glasbury.
In 1871 the landlord was John Davies, aged 36, a plumber and glazier as well as innkeeper; born in Glasbury and living with his wife, Harriet, and 3 children, all of whom were born in Glasbury.
In 1881 the landlord was James Davies, aged 56, born in Droitwich, living there with his wife, Jane, born in Builth and their daughter, Jessie, aged 22, also born in Builth.
In 1891 the Harp had a landlady, Annie Lewis, single, aged 32, born in Pembrokeshire. She is living there with Eleanor McCarthey, a servant, who was born in Llandewi, Radnorshire.
In 1901 the landlord was William Davies, aged 34, born in Tredegar, living with his wife, Mary, and a servant, Constance Watkins aged 18 who was born in the village. William was blind.
In 1911 the landlord was William Curtis Morgan, aged 34, born in the Rhondda Valley, living with his wife Minnie Jane and 3 children aged from 1 to 7, all born in the village, and a servant, Alice Swainscott, aged 23 and also born in the village.

The Lamb Inn : --

In 1841 the landlord was Thomas Jones, born circa 1821, with his wife Catherine, his 16 week old daughter Mary, and 1 servant. In 1851 and 1861 the landlord was Edward Evans, born circa 1811 in Aberllynfi, living with his wife Mary, 2 sons and 1 servant.
In 1871 Benjamin Williams moved to the Lamb from the Swan with his wife, Sarah, son William who is aged 16 and a blacksmith, his daughter, Sarah, aged 14, 2 servants and an apprentice. He was still the landlord in 1881 but in 1891 his son, William had taken over as landlord and was still there in 1901 with his wife Anne, daughter, Frances, his brother in law, Evan and 1 servant. By 1911 William was dead and his wife, Anne, was in charge, living there with her daughter, Frances Ammonds and her son-in-law John Ammonds (an ironmonger). The Ammonds had been married for 2 years and had one child who had died.
Mr Robert Fernie was the landlord from 1921 and on 19th July, 1928, he gave a talk to the children in classes 1 and 2 of Ffynnongynydd School regarding his voyage to, and life in, the Falkland Islands.

The Maesllwch Arms : --

In 1841 the landlord was Henry Joliffe, born circa 1791 on the Isle of Wight, living with his wife, Elinor, born circa 1801 in Builth and a servant, Celia Jones. Henry retired somewhere between 1841 and 1851 and in 1861 was living in Talgarth with Elinor and Celia, now listed as his niece and still a servant. In 1871 Elinor, a widow, was back living in the village near the Maesllwch.
Between 1851 and 1881 the landlord was Richard James, born circa 1816 in Pitsford, Northants, living with his wife, Jane, born around the same time in Pembrokeshire, 2 children, a niece, a nephew and various servants. Richard is listed as innkeeper and farmer.
In 1891 and 1901 the landlord was John Morgan, born circa 1855 in Crickhowell, innkeeper and plumber, living with his wife Ann, born in Penybont, sons William, Henry, Richard, Arthur and Charles, and daughter Anne. William, the eldest son, was born in the Rhondda Valley and in 1901 his occupation was given as butler.
In 1911 the landlady was Elizabeth Harper, a widow aged 57 born in Wells in Somerset, living with her daughter Edith Elizabeth, aged 20, born in Herefordshire and Ernest Catchpole a boarder aged 20, a chauffeur born in Hounslow.
The Swan Inn:
In 1851 and 1861 the landlord was Benjamin Williams, born circa 1816 in Llandefalle, also a master blacksmith employing 3 men, He is living with his wife, Sarah, born in Clifford and his children: Thomas also a blacksmith, William and Sarah who were all born in Glasbury. In 1861 he also has his father, another Benjamin and a former innkeeper living with the family.
In 1871 the landlord was Thomas Jones, born circa 1804 in Llandewi Fach, living with his wife Catharine, born in Hereford, and daughter, Annie, aged 18, a scholar, and son Charles aged 10.

The Six Bells : --

In 1816 the landlord was John White, an innkeeper and butcher.
From 1841 until 1871 the landlord was William Honeyfield, born circa 1809 in Gillingham, Dorset, living with his wife, Elizabeth, born in Glasbury, daughters Ann, Elizabeth, Margaret, Grace Eleanor, Priscilla Mary and sons William, John and James. He was an innkeeper and wool sorter, later a wool stapler. He died in 1877.
In 1881 his wife, Elizabeth and daughter, Priscilla, a dressmaker, were living in Wye Cottage, near Glasbury bridge. In 1891 they were living in Cwmbach. Elizabeth died in 1892.
In 1871 William’s daughter Margaret was a domestic servant in Great Malvern, and in 1881 she was a maid in Upton on Severn, Worcestershire. In 1901 she was back in Glasbury, living in the Old Vicarage with her sister, Priscilla. In 1911 she was living in Melbourne House with her sister Elizabeth Ammonds, a widow of private means, and the latter’s daughter, Gladys Emily, aged 26 and single (see below*). Margaret died on 25th May, 1946 at the age of 99. At this time she was living with her sister, Priscilla, in Green House on the Green. She left estate worth £4,559-11s-4d. ** Priscilla died on 6th January, 1951 at the age of 95 and left estate worth £2,981-14s-6d**
In 1869 William’s daughter, Elizabeth, married Thomas Ammonds (born in Glasbury). In the 1861 census both Elizabeth (a house servant and shop assistant) and Thomas (a butcher) were living and working on the Radnorshire side of the village, in the house of John Ardern who was a butcher and grocer. After their marriage they left Glasbury and kept a shop in Bedwellty, Monmouthshire, but in 1881 they were back in Glasbury, living with their 5 children at The Shop. This was situated I believe, where Grangeton is today and was a village shop until the 1960s. Of their 5 children, Gladys Emily*, born circa 1885, was a pupil teacher at Ffynnongynydd School in 1899. In 1946 she married the Rev. Fred Whitehead and lived at Melbourne House until her move to Cartref in Hay, where she died in April 1984 at the age of 99.
Thomas Ammonds, died in June 1903, leaving estate worth £2,561-2s-7d**; Elizabeth in May, 1935, aged 92.

** Equivalent values: in 1903 £1,000 equated to £112,000 in today’s values (2017)
in 1946 £1,000 equated to £29,000 in today’s values (2017).
In 1951 £1,000 equated to £22,000 in today’s values (2017).

Christine Forbes 11.07.2017

Sources : --

Census returns and parish registers.
Documents held in Powys County Archive
“The Pubs of Radnorshire” by Tony Hobbs
“The Great British Pub” by Ben Johnson

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